Description

Contact

Technical Note

Copyright

The Laplacian operator ${\nabla}^{2}$ is a differential operator that can be written in Cartesian coordinates in three dimension, x, y, z, as: $${\nabla}^{2}=\frac{{\partial}^{2}}{\partial {x}^{2}}+\frac{{\partial}^{2}}{\partial {y}^{2}}+\frac{{\partial}^{2}}{\partial {z}^{2}}$$

The temperature lapse rate ($\Gamma $) is the negative of the vertical gradient of temperature. See sections 1.2.1 and 4.2.1.

The latent heat (*L*) is the energy released or absorbed by a substance during a change of phase.
More formally, it is the change in enthalpy associated with a phase transition at
temperature *T*. The latent heat of fusion is the energy associated with changes
between the solid and the liquid states, while the latent heat of vaporisation is
associated with transitions between the liquid and the gaseous state.
See sections 1.4.2, 2.1.5.2, 2.1.6 and 2.2 and see also Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

A lead is an elongated area of open water inside the sea-ice pack. See section 1.4.1.

Legendre polynomials *P _{n}($\mu $)* are polynomial of degree n defined as:
$${P}_{n}\left(\mu \right)=\frac{1}{{2}^{n}n!}\frac{{d}^{n}{\left({\mu}^{2}-1\right)}^{n}}{d{\mu}^{n}}$$

The first four Legendre polynomials are thus $$\begin{array}{rcl}{P}_{0}\left(\mu \right)& =& 1\\ {P}_{1}\left(\mu \right)& =& \mu \\ {P}_{2}\left(\mu \right)& =& \frac{1}{2}\left(3{\mu}^{2}-1\right)\\ {P}_{3}\left(\mu \right)& =& \frac{1}{2}\left(5{\mu}^{3}-3\mu \right)\end{array}$$

See secion 3.4.3.

Limestone is a sedimentary rock mainly composed of calcite. See section 2.3.4.

The lithosphere is the outermost part of the solid Earth. It includes the Earth's crust and the upper part of the mantle. See sections 1.1 and 2.3.4.

The thermal radiation emitted by the Earth in the infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum. See sections 2.1.1, 2.1.4, 2.1.6 and 4.1.3.

The lysocline is the depth above which the rate of dissolution of *CaCO _{3}*
is very low. See section 4.3.1.